A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Companions to

Utilized or sensible ethics could be the most important development quarter in philosophy this day, and plenty of concerns in ethical, social, and political existence have come below philosophical scrutiny lately. Taken jointly, the essays during this quantity – together with evaluate essays on theories of ethics and the character of utilized ethics – supply a cutting-edge account of the main urgent ethical questions dealing with us today.

Show description

Read or Download A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy) PDF

Best ethics books

The Care of Life: Transdisciplinary Perspectives in Bioethics and Biopolitics

This interdisciplinary selection of essays demonstrates how the moral and political difficulties we're faced with at the present time have come to concentration mostly on lifestyles. The members to this quantity outline and examine the categorical that means of lifestyles itself. it's only by means of doing in order that we will be able to comprehend why lifestyles has turn into an all-encompassing challenge, why all questions, particularly moral and political, became important questions.

Tout, non, peut-être : Education et vérité

Peut-on enseigner l. a. vertu (Protagoras) ? Ou bien son apprentissage n’est-il rien d’autre que l’écoute patiente du savoir scientifique et l. a. soumission à los angeles vérité qui s’y dévoile (Socrate) ? L’efficacité scientifique a imposé l. a. recherche critique de los angeles vérité comme critère ultime en matière de formation, avec l’espoir d’une rencontre harmonieuse entre vérité, liberté individuelle et justice sociale.

Ethics Teaching in Higher Education

A priority for the moral guideline and formation of scholars has consistently been part of American better schooling. but that problem has on no account been uniform or unfastened from controversy. The centrality of ethical philosophy within the undergraduate curriculum through the mid-19th Century gave means later in the course of that period to the 1st indicators of accelerating specialization of the disciplines.

The Ethics of Memory in a Digital Age: Interrogating the Right to be Forgotten

This edited quantity files the present reflections at the 'Right to be Forgotten' and the interaction among the price of reminiscence and citizen rights approximately reminiscence. It offers a entire research of difficulties linked to patience of reminiscence, the definition of identities (legal and social) and the problems coming up for information administration.

Extra resources for A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy)

Example text

Is aesthetic appreciation a more valuable form of human experience than the relief of a scratched itch? " and "What is mor ll b l i t ? " t t h i l t h i d ith b t t hil hil i tht d l i th W d i t i i h f d i f f t kid () ti i th h i l h fl i th i d t t f thil j d t (b) l t d i i th h i l h f id i ht tl tt thil j d t h t it i t h l d thil i () t h i l i i th ibilit d t f thil t t h d (d) epistemological questions concerning the possibility and nature of ethical know ledge and how we can justify our ethical views Why however should we care about metaethics?

The Monist 67: 498-513 Alid Ethi i Tbld Wld Dordrecht: Kluwer Rachels J (1990) Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism New York: Oxford University Press Mtt f Lif d Dth N I t d t E i Ml Philh 3rd edn New York: McGraw-Hill Reich W (ed) (1995) Encyclopedia ofBioethics 2nd edn New York: Macmillan AC Alid i Ethi t Ethi (1993) P t i l Ethis 2nd edn New York: Cambridge University Press Sugarman J and Sulmasy D P (eds) (2001) Methods in Medical Ethics Washington DC: Sunstein C (1993) On analogical reasoning H d Winkler E R and Coombs J R (eds) (1993) Alid well 16 L Riw 106: 741-91 Ethi A Rdr Cambridge MA: Black- 2 T h i f Ethi STEPHEN L DARWALL Ethi i t i l diidd i t t t tthi d ti thi ith th l t t b i diidd f t h it ti th d " l i d t h i " th ith h i h d i thi l Thi l t t tb ill t h i it t lti t ti th lik t h t f lid t t h t i h t h i d i d i d d t l d l th lid to cases When it comes to normative ethics theories are often formulated and evaluated by reflecting on the ethically relevant features of cases Thus some phil h i t i tht i t th l l l f diti ti bt killi d ltti di ( ll t bt i il d ltti th h ) b flti ifi lik J d i t h T h ' f "tll b l " i hih di h bt ltti hi t i kill ti b f l dditi it t t k h it ld kill ll b (Th 1976) I t h i k i b t thi it to be relevant that by diverting the train the driver would be killing people or causing their deaths himself whereas if he let the train continue undiverted he would only be allowing deaths to occur By seeing this in a specific case it is d it dititi f lt h t i l l Ath t f " t i l thi" id th iti bt i ildi i difft i it t t h t th l f i t t til ti f ht t d F t l ht t t k i t ht hld d ( hld h d ) bt h t t thik fl b t ' h t b t hi h i d thi t f ti ti A d th th thil ti tht t i i l t i l ith even if they have practical implications: do all living species have intrinsic worth?

Aristotle's is a distinctive kind (a paradigm perhaps) of non-moral virtue ethics "nonmoral" again because although Aristotle's translators frequently use "moral i t " t i l t h t h i tlki b t ll f h t tht d ith h i Aittl d t l t th it t ti f l l d h i h ll tbl l Vit f Aittl di iti t h ht i fi bl (kalori) f it k dt id h t i b Th ti ti i ht N i t h lld " k d i " ideal ith t t hih b btt t l tht 34 THEORIES OF ETHICS li ith ilt F A i t t l th ti thil ti h esteem pride and disdain or contempt not guilt respect selfrespect and moral indignation Virtues are excellences {arete) traits that is that make something an excellent i t f it k i d It i it i kif f l t h t it h h d t h t it t ll I l k hih t i t ll ( l l t ki) i lti t thi' f t i (ergon) h t i t i tiit A A i t t l bli t h t th h t i t i tiit d i t i t i fh bi i ti ( i ) tht dititil h f f hi (f ti l d i t h l bl fi (kl)) h ld t h t th it tit f character that is settled dispositions to choose certain actions and avoid others as intrinsically noble or base We might put his point by saying that human excel lences are states of character concerned with choices that are themselves guided by idl fh ll I l l it thi i h ( l ) h idl A l t h h it b tid i Aittl' t t l l i l f t i i t i f h t di t h i h th i thi tht h bi i h t l f to b it d t b b d A l it thi b put forward simply as a normative view about which traits in human beings are worthy of esteem (or disdain) Analogously a moral virtue ethics is a theory of what is worthy of distinctively moral esteem that is traits that are worthy of esteem in a moral agent E l f h i b f d i Libi d th i h t t h t Sttih h i l h F i Hth Th H t h d t h t th b i l h i t f b l th d i t b f i t th d k th h M l t h hld i t iril f t bt f ti tit f h t l th d i t d d t f h bi d th t i t bi Th i i h i h th f it thi iht b ti of case or practical ethics First nonmoral virtue ethics reminds us that questions of right and wrong are far from the only or perhaps even the most important ethical questions we can ask in specific cases Thus it might be that failing to provide i i f i t l id t li ld h d ffri l t h h t i l ll th l ift i f l d lftifti O if th i t i t thi t h t b d jtl t t d l t t i till ift i i t t t i t d t d th i t l l t i t tht t dd ith l i i fll tifi h if S d ti f th i t i i d d t h ht action it is appropriate to take in specific cases In considering what to do it may be helpful to ask what a virtuous person or someone with a specific virtue (say generos ity) would do in that case This may simply be a useful heuristic but it may also flt th A i t t l i i t h t th i ff l t i thil iht t tht b d d ll lid b h l k th id " " f th i t A L i A t i td t h "If h t k 'll k " id b t j Thid i t thiit tf d ti f it t i l id t it ( ll i h t ) ti bt t f ht k ti 35 STEPHEN L DARWALL it ll i h t Th it b hld tht ti i th iht or appropriate thing to do in some case or circumstance just in case it is what the virtuous person would (characteristically) do in that circumstance (Hursthouse 1999) Such a view might depart from the letter of Aristotle's position since he idtifd it ttld d i i t i t h ifi ti f thi k ( b l ) Thi ld t k hih t i t it d d hih ti bl t i N t h l i it ld h l d t h t t th it f ti i ibl t h h th id d t f it h i ld i it l t Aittl' i f d t l iit W h t i t it thi i th id t h t id t sial questions of case ethics can be gained only by looking to the virtues or the virtuous person as a model Writers on case ethics therefore look to virtue ethics less frequently than they do t th thil t h i ill h th d ith i f l iht d If j d t f l bliti iliitl diti hldi th tbl f li it ill b bl t d d tht tifi ti f th j d t b f l t d i t t h t th b j t t th d t i i i l t It i thi d d tht h l d t th k i d f normative moral theories that have been advanced by contractarian/contractual ists consequentialists and deontologists In each case the goal has been to articu late actionguiding principles of right conduct that can be grasped and applied itht il it th th th j d t f ll t t l t Rf A b G E M (1958) M d l h i l h Philosophy 33 1 1 9 Aristotle (1998) Nicomachean Ethics trans W D Ross New York: Oxford University Press Bth J (1970) Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation d J H B dH L A H t L d Athl Dancy Jonathan (1993) Moral Reasons Oxford: Blackwell Social Philosophy and Policy 14 D l l Sth (1997) S l f i t t d lf Cbid U i i t P 15878 Al i Ell F P l ( d ) Self-interest C b i d CO W t i P (1998) Philosophical Ethics B l d (2002) Welfare and Rational Care Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press G t h i D i d (1986) Morals by Agreement O f d C l d P H Gilbrt (1975) M l ltii d f d d The Philosophical Review 84 3 2 2 I d i l i EST H k t t H b b Th (1994) Leviathan d E M C l Hursthouse Rosalind (1999) On Virtue Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press K t I l (1998) Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals d d t M G N Y k Cbrid U i i t P McDowell John (1979) Virtue and reason The Monist 62: 3 3 1 5 0 IN U i i t fNt D M l t A l d i (1981) After Virtue N t D BbbMrill Mill J h S t t (1957) Utilitarianism d Ok P i t I d i l i The Philosophical Review 95 163207 Rilt P t (1986) M l li Rawls John (1971) A Theory of Justice Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University 36 THEORIES OF ETHICS (1993) Political Liberalism.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.54 of 5 – based on 50 votes