A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East by David Seddon

By David Seddon

This reference quantity is the definitive advisor to the economics and politics of the center East. It presents transparent definitions detailing phrases, strategies, names and businesses utilized in relation to present fiscal or political beliefs within the center East. Entries outline, clarify and provides extra suitable details on international locations, areas, ethnic teams, political events, businesses, regulations and disputes.

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At one point Amal had as many as 14,000 troops. Criticized by Hezbollah for its laicism, its compromises with Israeli forces in the south and its hostility towards the Palestinians, in May 1988 Amal fought with Hezbollah forces in Beirut. This encouraged the deployment of Syrian troops in the southern outskirts of the city. Hostilities began again during the winter of 1988–89 and again in late 1989 and 1990. Amal and the Supreme Islamic Shi‘a Council (headed by Muhammad Mahdi Shams ad-Din, who is also Principal Controller of the Command Council of Amal), now propose a democratic pluralism (at-ta’addudiya) based on intersectarian consensus.

The Ahbash has established branches in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and the USA (with headquarters in Philadelphia). It enjoys excellent relations with most Arab states, particularly Syria. In rivalry with the Islamic Association for dominance of the Sunni community, it contested the Lebanese parliamentary elections of 1992 and won one seat in Beirut, though it lost it in 1996. AHC —see Arab Higher Commission/Committee for Palestine A-Z 23 Al-Ahd Pledge Jordanian political party.

In January 1960 the colons rebelled against de Gaulle. He began secret negotiations with the FLN provisional government in Cairo. Oil was discovered in the Sahara, leading France to consider retaining control of the oil-rich desert region while granting independence to the rest of Algeria. In 1962 Algeria became independent, with a government under the control of the FLN. For the next 27 years, until 1989, the FLN was the only political party in Algeria. The February 1989 amendments to the Constitution permitted the formation of other political associations, with some restrictions; the right to establish political parties was not guaranteed by the Constitution until November 1996.

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