By Angelo Basile, Suzana Pereira Nunes
Membranes are essentially designed to split specific gases/liquids from different streams of gas/liquids, which offers an more and more very important and promising strength to either the normal and replacement strength sectors, in addition to to wash functions. Advances in fabrics advancements besides desktop modeling and simulation have contributed tremendously to this box, making an allowance for more advantageous layout and manufacture of selective membrane as severe parts for such power and environmental platforms as gasoline processing, ion shipping, osmosis and filtration. The calls for of sustainable strength construction and fresh proceed to force membrane improvement towards the aim of straightforward, effective, and simply built-in platforms that supply reasonably cheap, trustworthy processing and operation. This e-book provides a entire evaluate membrane technological know-how and expertise, concentrating on advancements and functions within the parts of sustainable strength and clean-industry. The ebook at the start offers with primary technology and engineering of membrane layout, improvement and manufacture, together with operational matters, functionality and fiscal research . insurance maintains with experiences of the most membrane program within the traditional strength and petrochemical industries, together with membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) separation, in addition to gas and flue gasoline processing. the choice energy area is then thought of, with evaluation of gasoline phone, electrolyser and battery membrane expertise advancements, in addition to for hydrogen (H2) separation and osmotic purposes. the ultimate part studies environmental and clean-industry purposes, resembling ultrafiltration and unsafe waste processing.
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Extra resources for Advanced Membrane Science and Technology for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Applications (Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy)
Selectivity defined in this way depends not only on the properties of the gas–polymer system but also on process parameters, like upstream and downstream pressure, stage-cut (the ratio of permeate and feed streams) and so forth. More detailed consideration of mixed gas selectivity can be found in Matteucci et al. (2006). Many researchers have paid attention to a certain trade-off behaviour of permeability and permselectivity in various polymers: statistically, the more permeable a polymer is with respect to a gas (PA) the smaller the separation factors aAB = PA/PB it reveals.
Indd 20 8/5/11 10:45:03 AM Fundamental membrane processes, science and engineering 21 centrifugation-ultrafiltration system in the treatment of olive mill wastewater’, Journal Membrane Science, 209(2), 519–31. Von Gottberg A, Gagne D, Vaccaro G and Elyanow D, (2003), ‘World’s largest membranebased reuse project’, in Proceedings AWWA Membrane Technology Conference, Atlanta, USA, 2–5 March 2003. Zeman L J and Zydney A L (1996), Microfiltration and Ultrafitration, Principles and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Indd 4 8/5/11 10:45:02 AM Fundamental membrane processes, science and engineering 5 The chemical and physical properties of synthetic membranes and separated particles as well as the choice of driving force define a particular membrane separation process (Mulder, 1996). According to the driving force of the operation it is possible to distinguish: • • • • pressure driven operations (that includes MF, UF, NF, RO, gas separation, pervaporation) concentration driven operations (like dialysis and osmosis) operations in electric potential gradient (like electrodialysis, membrane electrolysis and electrophoresis) operations in temperature gradient (membrane distillation).