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Additional resources for Advances in space science and technology. Volume 4
1956). " Unger, New York. 24. Tischer, F. J. (1960). Propagation Doppler effects in space communications. Proc. E. 48, 570-574. 25. Hutchinson, H. , and Arendt, P. R. (1960). Ionospheric scintillations of satellite signals. In "Proceedings of the X th International Astronautical Congress, London, 1959" (F. ), pp. 402-408. Springer, Vienna. 26. Bain, W. C, and Golton, E. (1960). Some effects of the ionosphere on signals from earth satellites. " (H. K. ), pp. 272-285. Interscience, New York. 27.
These parameters vary slowly and not always in a completely predictable manner. Tracking of artificial Earth satellites requires establishment of the or- DOPPLER EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES 29 bital elements and recording their variations. Among the systems used for tracking (optical, radio direction finding) the measurement of Doppler effect seems to be the most promising, due to its simplicity. This is so because the measurement of frequency and time are technically the easiest to perform at a very high accuracy and are practically undisturbed by weather.
Fi*-frr 2cf AL 24 J. MASS AND E. VASSY where ft, c, /, and V are as defined earlier and e is the error in frequency. This gives for /i = 8 Mc and f2 = 7 Mc a shift in the Doppler curve of 5 cps when the satellite is above the observer. Near sunrise or sunset the ionospheric layers are not spherical but rather inclined relative to the local horizon. This makes the assumptions of the Weekes formula invalid. The change in maximum Doppler frequency due to layer inclination will reach about 1 per cent for a 5° inclination at 20 Mc or about 13 cps.