Amateur telescope making by Ingalis A.G. (ed.)

By Ingalis A.G. (ed.)

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Upon applying a voltage, a piezoelectric transducer expands or contracts. By applying a sawtooth voltage on the x piezo and a voltage ramp on the y piezo, the tip scans on the xy plane. Using the coarse positioner and the z piezo, the tip and the sample are brought to within a few angstroms of each other. The electron wavefunctions in the tip overlap electron wavefunctions in the sample surface. A bias voltage, applied between the tip and the sample, causes an electrical current to flow. 2, and is discussed in detail in Part I of this book.

Area shown is 250X250 A. Lower, schematic of the decomposition of the SiH2 fragments which yield the epitaxial monohydride surface. See Boland (1991a) for details. Original image courtesy of J. Boland. Plate 22. Initial reaction of oxygen with Si(100) surface. The oxidation of the Si(100) surface is one of the most important processing steps in microelectronics manufacturing. The STM provides a tool for studying this process at an atomic level, (a) A clean Si(100) surface prepared in ultra-high vacuum.

Tunneling through a controllable vacuum gap. The exponential dependence / ~ V is observed over four orders of magnitude. 5 eV was observed. ) From Eq. 12), it is clear that the tunneling current is extremely sensitive to a minute variance of the tip-sample distance. In order to achieve a stable metal-vacuum-metal tunneling, the suppression of environmental vibration is extremely important. In the first successful demonstration of vacuum tunneling with a controllable gap and scanning capability by Binnig, Rohrer, Gerber, and Weibel (1982a), the suppression of vibration was achieved with an elaborate method: magnetic levitation using superconductors working at liquid helium temperature.

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